IGNOU Solved Assignments - MAPC - MPC002 Life Span Psychology - MPC-002/ASST/TMA/2014-15

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SECTION A

1. Examine Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s theories of moral development during school years.

Moral development refers to the changes in the ability to reason about what is right and what is wrong in a given situation. Lawrence Kohlberg was a developmental psychologist who, influenced by Piaget and others, outlined a theory of the development of moral thinking through looking at how people of various ages responded to stories about people caught up in moral dilemmas. Continue Reading >>

2. Elucidate the cognitive changes during middle adulthood.

During middle adulthood, cognition begins to stabilize, reaching a peak around the age of 35. The various components of the human cognitive structure that undergoes changes during middle adulthood includes – intelligence, memory and creativity. Continue Reading >>

3. Discuss the ageing issues and challenges in adulthood.

Ageing is the organic process of growing older and showing the affects of increasing age. In the present day society, with increasing health consciousness, both men and women want to be physically and mentally fit. With advancing age certain inevitable and universal changes such as chemical changes in cells or gradual loss of adaptive reserve capacity take place. Continue Reading >>

SECTION B

4. What do you understand by growth and development?

Growth and development are often used as synonymous terms. But growth is more on the physical aspect while development is more on the mental aspect. These two processes are highly correlated with each other. Continue Reading >>

5. How can environmental influences affect the development of infant?

An infant or toddler has a time-limited period during which her experiences will affect her brain function and development. Nutrition, talking, singing, playing and protection from stress or the dangers of toxins and drugs are important requirements for healthy brain development in infants and toddlers. Continue Reading >>

6. Discuss the main components of language development in children.

The language hierarchy involves five systems of rules – phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. (Morphology and Semantics together form Grammar) Therefore, these form the main components of language development in children. Continue Reading >>

7. Describe motor development that takes place during middle childhood.

Motor development refers to the development of motor skills in children – the ability to co-ordinate muscles for different types of movements. Motor skills are of two types – Gross motor skills and Fine motor skills. Continue Reading >>

8. Analyse Levinson’s theory and its features in adulthood development.

The Stage-Crisis View is a theory of adult development that was established by Daniel Levinson in his 1978 publication entitled ""The Seasons of a Man's Life. Continue Reading >>

SECTION C

9. Explain Period of Zygote

After a female egg is fertilized, the resulting one-celled organism becomes known as a zygote. Once this has occurred, the zygote begins a two-week period of rapid cell division and will eventually become an embryo. Continue Reading >>

10. Explain Time lag method

The time lag design has been defined by Schaie as examining ""whether there are differences in a give characteristic for samples of equal age but drawn from different cohorts measured at different times."" Continue Reading >>

11. Explain Smiling

Smiling is critical as a means of developing a new social skill and is a key social signal (Campos, 2009). Two types of smiling can be distinguished in infants… Continue Reading >>

12. Explain Ego identity Vs Despair

Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. It occurs during late adulthood - age 65 through the end of life. Continue Reading >>

13. Explain Egocentrism in adolescence

Adolescent egocentrism is a term that David Elkind used to describe the phenomenon of adolescents' inability to distinguish between their perception of what others think about them and what people actually think in reality. Continue Reading >>

14. Explain Moratorium

Eriksonian researcher James Marcia (1980, 1994) proposes that Erikson’s theory of identity development contains four statuses of identity, or ways of resolving the identity crisis: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement. Continue Reading >>

15. Explain Exceptional children

Children exhibit differences from one another in terms of learning abilities. The differences among most children are relatively small, enabling these children to benefit from the general education program. Continue Reading >>

16. Explain Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery

The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (WJ-PEB), originally published in 1977, measured cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitudes, academic achievement and scholastic and non-scholastic interests. Continue Reading >>

17. Explain Sensory motor Stage

The sensorimotor stage lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions—hence the term “sensorimotor.” Continue Reading >>

18. Explain Retirement and leisure

Retirement is the phase of one’s life when the lifelong job of earning a living, raising a family, and overcoming the day-to-day obstacles that affect one's income, status, and career comes to an end. Continue Reading >>
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